China is the largest dye-producing country in the world at present. With the rapid development of dye-producing industry, environmental problems have become increasingly prominent. The "three wastes" produced in the manufacture of dye intermediates, especially wastewater, are the main sources of China's dye industry becoming a major polluter.
Dye intermediate wastewater refers to the process wastewater discharged from the production of dyes or dye intermediates.
The production of dye intermediates includes the following processes: from benzene, naphthalene, anthracene and other basic organic raw materials through sulfonation, nitrification, reduction, halogenation, amination, oxidation, acylation, alkylation and other chemical reaction processes, to generate more complex than the original structure, but do not have the characteristics of dye organic compounds, such as H acid, soil acid, J acid and so on.
Generally speaking, the wastewater of dye intermediates has the following characteristics:
1. There are many kinds of pollutants in wastewater. The waste water of dyes and dyestuff intermediates contains acids, bases, salts, halogens, hydrocarbons, nitro substances, amines, dyes and intermediates and other substances, some also contain highly toxic benzidine, pyridine, ammonia, phenol, and heavy metals such as mercury, cadmium and chromium.
2. High concentration of organic matter. The CODCr value is generally above 4000mg/L. For acid dyes, direct dyes and edible dyes, the raw materials often contain sulfonic acid groups, which are easily soluble in water, leading to the existence of these organic pollutants in water soluble state in the waste liquid.
3. High salt content. The salt content of wastewater can reach tens to hundreds of g/L.
4. The use of dye requirements, promote it to resist photolysis, antioxidant, anti-biodegradation direction development, making these wastewater difficult to use conventional methods of treatment.
5. The dye production is mostly intermittent operation, the process is backward, the wastewater quality fluctuates greatly, the water quality fluctuation of township enterprises is more significant.
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